Risk-based energy procurement of retailer in the presence of demand response exchange

Document Type : Original Article


1 Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

2 Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tabriz


A retailer can sign multiple contracts with participation in demand response program (DRP). The energy sources considered for retailers include pool market and forward contracts. In this paper, several new DRP schemes are proposed for a retailer which is containing pool-order DR, forward DR and reward-base DR. proposed model is an agreement that retailer will participate it, if is useful. Pool market price uncertainty modeling is one of the main challenges in power system modeling which information gap decision theory (IGDT) is proposed for this uncertainty. In IGDT approach, the robustness and opportunity functions are used to study of different strategies in the presence of pool market price uncertainty. Robustness function is used in the risk-averse strategy while opportunity function is used in the risk-taker strategy. The proposed IGDT risk-constraint strategies of electricity retailer in presence of pool-order DR, forward DR and reward-base DR are modeled via mixed-integer non-linear programming which is solved using SBB solver under GAMS optimization software. To validate the proposed model, two cases are studied and positive effects of proposed DR scheme on the risk-averse, risk-neutral, risk-taker strategies are investigated, and the results are compared with each other.


Main Subjects

Volume 2, Issue 2
June 2018
Pages 31-41
  • Receive Date: 26 April 2018
  • Revise Date: 27 June 2018
  • Accept Date: 11 July 2018
  • First Publish Date: 11 July 2018