Evaluating Exhaust Gas Emissions from Blended Ethanol-Gasoline Combustion in Two Iranian National Common Light-Vehicle Engines at Different Speeds

Document Type : Review Article


1 Department of Renewable Energy and Environment, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran

2 Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University,Iran, Tehran



This research evaluates the performance of the two most utilized light-vehicle engines in Tehran, Iran. This paper aims to assess exhaust gas emissions of blended ethanol-gasoline combustion in two of Iran's national engines, TU5 and EF7, at different engine speeds. For this, exhaust gases, including CO2, CO, HC, and NOx, are analyzed using ANOVA statistical analysis. Fuel samples with 0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 vol.% ethanol in gasoline are tested in the TU5 and EF7 engines at different engine speeds, i.e., 850, 1000, 2000, 3000, and 4000 rpm. Findings suggest that the amount of exhaust gases is majorly dependent on the engines' characteristics, particularly the air-to-fuel equivalence ratio. According to the experimental results, CO2, HC, and NOx emissions from the EF7 engine are higher than the TU5 engine at all speeds. CO is higher in the TU5 case, on the contrary. As per the variance analysis results, exhaust emissions are primarily contingent upon and influenced by the oxygen rate required for combustion, fuel richness, and cylinder temperature rather than the composition of ethanol-gasoline blends.


Main Subjects

1. M. S. M. Zaharin, N. R. Abdullah, H. H. Masjuki, O. M. Ali, G. Najafi, and T. Yusaf, “Evaluation on physicochemical properties of iso-butanol additives in ethanol-gasoline blend on performance and emission characteristics of a spark-ignition engine,” Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 144, pp. 960–971, 2018.
2. S. Manzetti and O. Andersen, “A review of emission products from bioethanol and its blends with gasoline. background for new guidelines for emission control,” Fuel, vol. 140, pp. 293–301, 2015.
3. Q. Fan, Y. Qi, and Z. Wang, “Effect of octane number and thermodynamic conditions on combustion process of spark ignition to compression ignition through a rapid compression machine,” Fuel, vol. 262, p. 116480, 2020.
4. I. Badrawada and A. Susastriawan, “Influence of ethanol–gasoline blend on performance and emission of four-stroke spark ignition motorcycle,” Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, vol. 21, pp. 1891–1896, 2019.
5. A. O. Hasan, H. Al-Rawashdeh, H. Ala’a, A. Abu-jrai, R. Ahmad, and J. Zeaiter, “Impact of changing combustion chamber geometry on emissions, and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder si (spark ignition) engine fueled with ethanol/gasoline blends,” Fuel, vol. 231, pp. 197–203, 2018.
6. B. Dogan, D. Erol, H. Yaman, and E. Kodanli, “The effect of ethanol-gasoline blends on performance and exhaust emissions of a spark ignition engine through exergy analysis,” Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 120, pp. 433–443, 2017.
7. A. Elfasakhany, “Engine performance evaluation and pollutant emissions analysis using ternary bio-ethanol–iso-butanol–gasoline blends in gasoline engines,” Journal of cleaner production, vol. 139, pp. 1057–1067, 2016.
8. T. Beer and T. Grant, “Life-cycle analysis of emissions from fuel ethanol and blends in australian heavy and light vehicles,” Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 15, no. 8-9, pp. 833–837, 2007.
9. M. Canakci, A. N. Ozsezen, E. Alptekin, and M. Eyidogan, “Impact of alcohol–gasoline fuel blends on the exhaust emission of an si engine,” Renewable Energy, vol. 52, pp. 111–117, 2013.
10. G. Najafi, B. Ghobadian, T. Tavakoli, D. Buttsworth, T. Yusaf, and M. Faizollahnejad, “Performance and exhaust emissions of a gasoline engine with ethanol blended gasoline fuels using artificial neural network,” Applied energy, vol. 86, no. 5, pp. 630–639, 2009.
11. Y. Luo, L. Zhu, J. Fang, Z. Zhuang, C. Guan, C. Xia, X. Xie, and Z. Huang, “Size distribution, chemical composition and oxidation reactivity of particulate matter from gasoline direct injection (gdi) engine fueled with ethanol-gasoline fuel,” Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 89, pp. 647–655, 2015.
12. L.-W. Jia, M.-Q. Shen, J. Wang, and M.-Q. Lin, “Influence of ethanol– gasoline blended fuel on emission characteristics from a four-stroke motorcycle engine,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 123, no. 1-3,pp. 29–34, 2005.
13. O. Armas, R. García-Contreras, and Á. Ramos, “Pollutant emissions from engine starting with ethanol and butanol diesel blends,” Fuel Processing Technology, vol. 100, pp. 63–72, 2012.
14. M. K. Balki, C. Sayin, and M. Canakci, “The effect of different alcohol fuels on the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a gasoline engine,” Fuel, vol. 115, pp. 901–906, 2014.
15. S. Uslu and M. B. Celik, “Performance and exhaust emission prediction of a si engine fueled with i-amyl alcohol-gasoline blends: an ann coupled rsm based optimization,” Fuel, vol. 265, p. 116922, 2020.
16. A. Elfasakhany, “Gasoline engine fueled with bioethanol-bio-acetonegasoline blends: Performance and emissions exploration,” Fuel, vol. 274, p. 117825, 2020.
17. P. Chansauria and R. Mandloi, “Effects of ethanol blends on performance of spark ignition engine-a review,” Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 4066–4077, 2018.
18. R. B. R. da Costa, R. M. Valle, J. J. Hernández, A. C. T. Malaquias, C. J. Coronado, and F. J. P. Pujatti, “Experimental investigation on the potential of biogas/ethanol dual-fuel spark-ignition engine for power generation: Combustion, performance and pollutant emission analysis,” Applied Energy, vol. 261, p. 114438, 2020.
19. B. Masum, H. Masjuki, M. Kalam, I. R. Fattah, S. Palash, and M. Abedin, “Effect of ethanol–gasoline blend on nox emission in si engine,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 24, pp. 209–222, 2013.
20. D. O. Marques, L. S. Trevizan, I. M. Oliveira, O. Seye, and R. E. Silva, “Combustion assessment of an ethanol/gasoline flex-fuel engine,” Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, vol. 39, pp. 1079–1086, 2017.
21. M. Eyidogan, A. N. Ozsezen, M. Canakci, and A. Turkcan, “Impact of alcohol–gasoline fuel blends on the performance and combustion characteristics of an si engine,” Fuel, vol. 89, no. 10, pp. 2713–2720, 2010.
22. M. B. Celik, “Experimental determination of suitable ethanol–gasoline blend rate at high compression ratio for gasoline engine,” Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 28, no. 5-6, pp. 396–404, 2008.
23. M. A. Costagliola, M. V. Prati, S. Florio, P. Scorletti, D. Terna, P. Iodice, D. Buono, and A. Senatore, “Performances and emissions of a 4-stroke motorcycle fuelled with ethanol/gasoline blends,” Fuel, vol. 183, pp. 470–477, 2016.
24. M. Koç, Y. Sekmen, T. Topgül, and H. S. Yücesu, “The effects of ethanol–unleaded gasoline blends on engine performance and exhaust emissions in a spark-ignition engine,” Renewable energy, vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 2101–2106, 2009.
25. A. T. Hoang, Q. V. Tran, A. R. M. S. Al-Tawaha, X. P. Nguyen, et al., “Comparative analysis on performance and emission characteristics of an in-vietnam popular 4-stroke motorcycle engine running on biogasoline and mineral gasoline,” Renewable Energy Focus, vol. 28, pp. 47–55, 2019.
26. M. S. M. Zaharin, N. R. Abdullah, H. H. Masjuki, O. M. Ali, G. Najafi, and T. Yusaf, “Evaluation on physicochemical properties of iso-butanol additives in ethanol-gasoline blend on performance and emission characteristics of a spark-ignition engine,” Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 144, pp. 960–971, 2018.