Hybrid Energy System for Powering Base Transceiver Stations with Different Battery Storage Technologies

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Environment and Energy, Islamic Azad University Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran

2 Islamic Azad University, Jolfa International Branch, Jolfa, Iran

3 Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, university of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

4 Department of Energy Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

5 School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

6 Sharif Energy Research Institute, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran



This study presents modeling and simulation of a stand-alone hybrid energy system for a base transceiver
station (BTS). The system is consisted of a wind and turbine photovoltaic (PV) panels as renewable
resources, and also batteries to store excess energy in order to boost the system reliability. Two different
types of batteries are considered for storage purposes; lead-acid and vanadium redox-flow batteries (VRB)
batteries. Most stand-alone energy systems for various applications take advantage of at least a single
storage technology, generally lead-acid batteries. However, with recent advances in different battery
technologies, vanadium redox-flow batteries could be taken into account as reliable candidate. The
vanadium redox-flow battery has a desirable prospect due to its extended life span and also the potential
for separating and scaling up involved nominal power and nominal energy. The system is modelled and
simulated hourly (quasi-dynamically) in Matlab for an operational year. The model utilizes insolation,
wind speed and air temperature data. The system performance has been assessed with a mobile telephone
Base Transceiver Stations (BTS) as the case study. Simulations results have shown that the suggested
model can be used to study the effect of the altering weather conditions on each charge/discharge cycles
and batteries voltage. Finally the proposed model yields the optimal battery network design for a variety
of applications.


1. Zecca A, Chiari L. Fossil-fuel constraints on global warming. Energy
Policy. 2010;38(1):1-3.
2. Wigley T. Could reducing fossil-fuel emissions cause global warming?
Nature. 1991;349(6309):503-6.
3. Bach W. Fossil fuel resources and their impacts on environment and
climate. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 1981;6(2):185-201.
4. Khan S. Fossil fuel and the environment: BoD–Books on Demand;
5. Kang W, Ratti RA. Structural oil price shocks and policy uncertainty.
Economic Modelling. 2013;35:314-9.
6. Elder J, Serletis A. Oil price uncertainty in Canada. Energy Economics.
7. Elder J, Serletis A. Oil price uncertainty. Journal of Money, Credit and
Banking. 2010;42(6):1137-59.
8. Bekiros S, Gupta R, Paccagnini A. Oil price forecastability and economic
uncertainty. Economics Letters. 2015;132:125-8.
9. Feldman D, Ramasamy V, Fu R, Ramdas A, Desai J, Margolis R. US
solar photovoltaic system and energy storage cost benchmark: Q1
2020. National Renewable Energy Lab.(NREL), Golden, CO (United
States); 2021.
10. Baker E, Fowlie M, Lemoine D, Reynolds SS. The economics of solar
electricity. Annu Rev Resour Econ. 2013;5(1):387-426.
11. Shen W, Chen X, Qiu J, Hayward JA, Sayeef S, Osman P, et al. A comprehensive
review of variable renewable energy levelized cost of electricity.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2020;133:110301.
12. Webb J, de Silva HN, Wilson C. The future of coal and renewable power
generation in Australia: a review of market trends. Economic Analysis
and Policy. 2020;68:363-78.
13. Jacobson MZ, Delucchi MA. Providing all global energy with wind,
water, and solar power, Part I: Technologies, energy resources,
quantities and areas of infrastructure, and materials. Energy policy.
14. Abookazemi K, Hassan M, Majid M, editors. A review on optimal placement
methods of distribution generation sources. 2010 IEEE International
Conference on Power and Energy; 2010: IEEE.
15. Dufo-López R, Bernal-Agustín JL, Yusta-Loyo JM, Domínguez-Navarro
JA, Ramírez-Rosado IJ, Lujano J, et al. Multi-objective optimization
minimizing cost and life cycle emissions of stand-alone PV–wind–diesel
systems with batteries storage. Applied Energy. 2011;88(11):4033-41.
16. Belmili H, Haddadi M, Bacha S, Almi MF, Bendib B. Sizing stand-alone
photovoltaic–wind hybrid system: Techno-economic analysis and optimization.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2014;30:821-
17. Shi B, Wu W, Yan L. Size optimization of stand-alone PV/wind/diesel
hybrid power generation systems. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of
Chemical Engineers. 2017;73:93-101.
18. Das S, Akella AK. Power flow control of PV-wind-battery hybrid renewable
energy systems for stand-alone application. International Journal
of Renewable Energy Research (IJRER). 2018;8(1):36-43.
19. Moghaddam S, Bigdeli M, Moradlou M, Siano P. Designing of standalone
hybrid PV/wind/battery system using improved crow search algorithm
considering reliability index. International Journal of Energy and
Environmental Engineering. 2019;10(4):429-49.
20. Li C, Zhou D, Wang H, Lu Y, Li D. Techno-economic performance study
of stand-alone wind/diesel/battery hybrid system with different battery
technologies in the cold region of China. Energy. 2020;192:116702.
21. Xu X, Hu W, Cao D, Huang Q, Chen C, Chen Z. Optimized sizing of a
standalone PV-wind-hydropower station with pumped-storage installation
hybrid energy system. Renewable Energy. 2020;147:1418-31.
22. Hossain M, Mekhilef S, Olatomiwa L. Performance evaluation of a
stand-alone PV-wind-diesel-battery hybrid system feasible for a large
resort center in South China Sea, Malaysia. Sustainable cities and
society. 2017;28:358-66.
23. Alturki FA, Awwad EM. Sizing and cost minimization of standalone
hybrid wt/pv/biomass/pump-hydro storage-based energy systems. Energies.
24. Abd El-Sattar H, Sultan HM, Kamel S, Khurshaid T, Rahmann C. Optimal
design of stand-alone hybrid PV/wind/biomass/battery energy
storage system in Abu-Monqar, Egypt. Journal of Energy Storage.
25. Chowdhury T, Chowdhury H, Hasan S, Rahman MS, Bhuiya M, Chowdhury
P. Design of a stand-alone energy hybrid system for a makeshift
health care center: A case study. Journal of Building Engineering.
26. Kusakana K, Vermaak HJ. Hybrid renewable power systems for mobile
telephony base stations in developing countries. Renewable Energy.
27. Lagorse J, Paire D, Miraoui A, editors. Hybrid stand-alone power supply
using PEMFC, PV and battery-Modelling and optimization. 2009
International Conference on Clean Electrical Power; 2009: IEEE.
28. Zhou W, Yang H, Fang Z. A novel model for photovoltaic array performance
prediction. Applied energy. 2007;84(12):1187-98.
29. Green M. PV modules: operating principles, technology and system
applications. Sydney: UNSW. 1992.
30. Patel M. Wind and solar power systems: design, analysis, and operation.
2005. CRC press.
31. Chedid R, Akiki H, Rahman S. A decision support technique for the design
of hybrid solar-wind power systems. IEEE transactions on Energy
conversion. 1998;13(1):76-83.
32. Skyllas-Kazacos M, Rychick M, Robins R. All-vanadium redox battery.
Google Patents; 1988.
33. De Leon CP, Frías-Ferrer A, González-García J, Szánto D, Walsh FC.
Redox flow cells for energy conversion. Journal of power sources.
34. Schreiber M, Harrer M, Whitehead A, Bucsich H, Dragschitz M, Seifert
E, et al. Practical and commercial issues in the design and manufacture
of vanadium flow batteries. Journal of Power Sources. 2012;206:483-9.
35. Alotto P, Guarnieri M, Moro F. Redox flow batteries for the storage
of renewable energy: A review. Renewable and sustainable energy
reviews. 2014;29:325-35.
36. Blanc C. Modeling of a vanadium redox flow battery electricity storage
system: Verlag nicht ermittelbar; 2009.
37. Merei G, Berger C, Sauer DU. Optimization of an off-grid hybrid
PV–Wind–Diesel system with different battery technologies using genetic
algorithm. Solar Energy. 2013;97:460-73.
38. Blanc C, Rufer A, editors. Multiphysics and energetic modeling of a
vanadium redox flow battery. 2008 IEEE International Conference on
Sustainable Energy Technologies; 2008: IEEE.
39. Achaibou N, Haddadi M, Malek A. Lead acid batteries simulation
including experimental validation. Journal of Power Sources.
Volume 7, Issue 2
June 2023
Pages 59-68
  • Receive Date: 16 April 2022
  • Revise Date: 13 September 2022
  • Accept Date: 02 November 2022
  • First Publish Date: 19 November 2022