Document Type : Original Article
Imam hossein university, Tehran, Iran
Power distribution networks are known as a key infrastructure of smart cities. The safe operation of such networks is generally threatened by terrorist agents to disrupt the activities of smart cities. Therefore, distribution network planners attempt to find a solution for increasing the resilience of a distribution system against terrorist attacks. The hardening of distribution lines and allocation of electrical energy storage units are generally performed for reaching planner goals. However, investment for obtaining a resilient distribution network against terrorist attacks is limited by a hardening budget. This budget can be increased by considering other distribution network plans (such as increasing the expansion of renewable energies) and using the geographical features of the studied distribution networks. This paper proposes a tri-level optimization problem for allocating and sizing the offshore pumped storage units for increasing an Island city distribution network resiliency against terrorist activities and minimizing the network operation cost by solving the stochastic nature of ocean wave generation powers. The proposed tri-level problem is solved based on the Benders decomposition method using primal cuts. The simulating results obtained by using the IEEE distribution test system validate the effectiveness of the proposed tri-level model and highlight that offshore pumped storage units can enhance the resiliency of a distribution system located on an island against terrorist attacks and reduce the total operation cost during normal conditions.