Document Type : Original Article
Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.
Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Bonab, Bonab, Iran
The interest in utilizations of electric vehicles (EVs) causes to increase the penetration of intelligent parking lots (IPL). Also, vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology next to grid-to-vehicle (G2V) technology improves the profitability of the IPLs. In addition to vehicle charge and discharge management, the IPLs can gain more profit by installing and accessing loads and resources. In this paper, the IPLs next to the hydrogen storage system (HSS) containing electrolysis, fuel cell and hydrogen storage tanks are considered to serve the loads in the existence of the upstream grid that is modeled through a scenario approach based on stochastic optimization. The uncertainties related to the electrical load, market price, vehicle's arrival and departure time, initial State-of-charge (SOC), and desired SOC of the car are considered in the proposed model. Besides, the financial risks related to the proposed hydrogen storage-based intelligent parking lot's uncertain parameters are modeled by the conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) method to get the risk-averse and risk-neutral strategies during the system operation horizon. The obtained results demonstrate that the uncertainties have a significant impact on smart parking operators' profitability, so considering uncertainty is a critical issue for parking lots. Risk results also represent that the variation of financial risk in the higher deviation of uncertain parameters is more than risk variation in lower deviations.