Simultaneous dynamic optimal control of active and reactive power of microgrids in real-time market considering losses

Document Type: Original Article


1 Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Birjand, Birjand, 971175-615, Iran

2 faculty of electrical and computer engineering, university of birjand



Hierarchical control, which includes centralized and decentralized control systems, is a convenient method to control microgrids. The optimal operation of a microgrid from an economic point of view is the duty of the third level of hierarchical control. In the market model with a uniform payment method, the optimal economic dispatch of active power is based on the equality of marginal utility of the microgrid controllable resources. A dynamic population dispatch is applied to a real-time market to implement this equality. The share of each source from the demand is proportional to the value of its fitness. The fitness of each source depends on its rated power, the cost factor and penalty factor. To calculate the penalty factor, the Jacobian and numerical methods are compared. By calculating the marginal utility using a dynamic power dispatch approach and knowledge of market price by the main power grid (MPG), the path of energy exchange between the microgrid and the MPG is specified. The microgrid participation in the ancillary services market and the profit of microgrid in active or reactive power sales are also investigated. A 14-bus radial network with resistive lines and five different controllable sources are chosen in this paper. A real-time approach is presented for optimal economic control of microgrids with the objective of maximizing their profit in the real-time market.


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